Hellebores are a protected genus and originate from mountainous regions where they are usually found at altitudes of up to 1900 metres. Their natural habitat stretches from the eastern Alps through Germany (primarily Bavaria), Austria, Switzerland and Italy to the Northern Balkans.
Christmas roses (helleborus niger) are characterised by their saucer-shaped white - or occasionally bright pink - flowers. The silky surface of the flowers and their characteristic black roots are unmistakable. They can grow to a height between 10 and 30 cm. All 15 varieties are extremely robust and easy to look after. They do not belong, as the name mistakenly suggests, to the rose genus, but to the buttercup family.
Literally translated, hellebore means something like 'lethal food'. This name is not random as hellebores are actually poisonous. You should therefore wash your hands after touching these plants - or even better, wear gloves when handling them. There is no need to worry about pets, however, as the plant usually does them no harm as long as they don't eat its poisonous roots. Due to their toxic effect, hellebores were also used in ancient times as a medicinal plant for treating nervous disorders and mental illness. In the ancient world, they were even used as a chemical weapon against the enemy. Mainly in rustic areas, hellebores were used as to forecast the weather for the coming year. The root extract of hellebores was also used to produce snuff and sneezing powder. Because of this, another of the many German names for the plant was coined, 'Schwarze Nieswurz', which literally means 'black sneezing root'. As hellebores flower in the winter and defy ice and snow, they have always been considered a symbol of hope.
The best garden position for hellebores is under trees which lose their leaves so that the evergreen plants get enough shade in the summer and enough sun in the winter. Hellebores are planted in the summer. Remember that they need limey soil to grow well and that the distance between the plants, which like to be planted in groups, should ideally be approximately 15 cm.
Fertiliser tips in autumn – hellebores
From the end of September onwards, hellebores of the niger-variety (bot. Helleborus niger), also known as the Christmas rose or black hellebore, enjoy being fed with fertiliser. We recommend you use organic fertilisers such as cattle dung, for example. Add approximately 50 g/m² of fertiliser lime should your soil be deficient in lime. This guarantees an optimum supply of nutrients.
When and how should you fertilise?
Organic fertilisers, such as for example horn meal, compost or stored, optimally pre-composted cattle and horse dung can be given to your plants when they start to flower, and again from approximately August to September. However, be sparing with your fertiliser. Three litres of compost per square metre and per year are entirely sufficient.
Please do not forget that all parts of the hellebore are highly poisonous. Ensure that children and pets do not handle or eat Christmas roses.
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